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Section 7.6. Potable Water Systems

Sec 7-7.2 materials, 7.3-piping-testing, 7.4-drainage-cleanouts, 7.5-venting-sizing, 7.6-7.7-potable water


7.6.1.  Arrangement of Piping
7.6.1.1.  Design, Fabrication and Installation
    (1)  Potable water systems shall be designed, fabricated and installed in accordance with good engineering practice, such as that described in the ASHRAE Guide and Data Books, the ASHRAE Handbooks and ASPE Data Books.
    (2)  Every fixture supplied with separate hot and cold water controls shall have the hot water control on the left and the cold on the right.
    (3)  Where hot and cold water are mixed and the temperature is regulated by a single, unmarked, manual control, a movement to the left shall increase the temperature and a movement to the right shall decrease the temperature.
    (4)  In a hot water distribution system of a developed length of more than 30 m or supplying more than 4 storeys, the water temperature shall be maintained by,
    (a)   recirculation, or
    (b)   a self-regulating heat tracing system.
7.6.1.2.  Drainage
    (1)  A water distribution system shall be installed so that the system can be drained or blown out with air and outlets for this purpose shall be provided.
7.6.1.3.  Control and Shut-off Valves
    (1)  A building control valve shall be provided,
    (a)   on every water service pipe at the location where the water service pipe enters the building, or
    (b)   on the water distribution system at a location immediately downstream of the point of entry treatment unit, where the building is served by a point of entry treatment unit located in the building.
    (2)  Except as provided in Sentence (3), a drain port shall be provided on the water distribution system immediately downstream of the building control valve required by Sentence (1) and if there is a meter, the drain port shall be installed immediately downstream of the meter on the water distribution system.
    (3)  Where the building control valve required by Sentence (1) is of one in. trade size or smaller, the drain port may be an integral part of the building control valve in the form of a stop and waste valve and the drain port shall be located on the water distribution system side of the stop and waste valve.
    (4)  Every pipe that is supplied with water from a tank on the property that is a gravity water tank or a tank of a drinking water system shall be provided with a shut-off valve located close to the tank.
    (5)  Where the water supply is to be metered, the installation of the meter, including the piping that is part of the meter installation and the valving arrangement for the meter installation, shall be according to the water purveyor's requirements.
    (6)  For the purpose of identifying the pipe material where plastic (polybutylene, polyethylene or PVC) water pipe is used underground for a service pipe, the end of the pipe inside the building shall be brought above ground for a distance not less than 300 mm and not greater than 450 mm.
7.6.1.4.  Shut-off Valves
    (1)  Except for a single-family dwelling, every riser shall be provided with a shut-off valve at the source of supply.
7.6.1.5.  Water Closets
    (1)  Every water closet shall be provided with a shut-off valve on its water supply pipe.
7.6.1.6.  Suites
    (1)  Shut-off valves shall be installed in every suite in a building of residential occupancy as may be necessary to ensure that when the supply to one suite is shut off the supply to the remainder of the building is not interrupted.
7.6.1.7.  Public Washrooms
    (1)  The water supply to each fixture in a washroom for public use shall be individually valved and each valve shall be accessible.
7.6.1.8.  Tanks
    (1)  Every water pipe that supplies a hot water tank, pressure vessel, plumbing appliance or water using device shall be provided with a shut-off valve located close to the tank, pressure vessel, plumbing appliance or water using device.
7.6.1.9.  Protection for Exterior Water Supply
    (1)  Every pipe that passes through an exterior wall to supply water to the exterior of the building shall be provided with,
    (a)   a frost-proof hydrant with a separate shut-off valve located inside the building, or
    (b)   a stop-and-waste cock located inside the building and close to the wall.
7.6.1.10.  Check Valves
    (1)  A check valve shall be installed at the building end of the water service pipe where the pipe is made of plastic that is suitable for cold water use only.
7.6.1.11.  Flushing Devices
    (1)  Every flushing device that serves a water closet or one or more urinals shall have sufficient capacity and be adjusted to deliver at each operation a volume of water that will thoroughly flush the fixture or fixtures that it serves.
    (2)  Where a manually operated flushing device is installed it shall serve only one fixture.
7.6.1.12.  Relief Valves
    (1)  Every pressure vessel that is part of a plumbing system or connected to a plumbing system shall be equipped with a pressure relief valve designed to open when the water pressure in the tank reaches the rated working pressure of the tank, and so located that the pressure in the tank shall not exceed 1100 kPa or ½ the maximum test pressure sustained by the tank whichever is the lesser.
    (2)  Every hot water tank of a storage-type service water heater shall be equipped with a temperature relief valve with a temperature sensing element,
    (a)   located within the top 150 mm of the tank, and
    (b)   designed to open and discharge sufficient water from the tank to keep the temperature of the water in the tank from exceeding 99°C under all operating conditions.
    (3)  A pressure relief valve and temperature relief valve may be combined where Sentences (1) and (2) are complied with.
    (4)  Every indirect service water heater shall be equipped with,
    (a)   a pressure relief valve, and
    (b)   a temperature relief valve on every storage tank that forms part of the system.
    (5)  Every pipe that conveys water from a temperature relief, pressure relief, or a combined temperature and pressure relief valve shall,
    (a)   be of a size at least equal to the size of the outlet of the valve,
    (b)   be rigid, slope downward from the valve, and ,
               (i)   terminate with an indirect connection above a floor drain, sump or other safe location, with an air break of not more than 300 mm, or
              (ii)   terminate at a distance not less than 150 mm and not more than 300 mm from a floor and discharges vertically down,
     (c)   have no thread at its outlet, and
    (d)   be capable of operating at a temperature of not less than 99°C.
    (6)  The temperature relief valve required in Clause (4)(b) shall,
    (a)   have a temperature sensing element located within the top 150 mm of the tank, and
    (b)   be designed to open and discharge sufficient water to keep the temperature of the water in the tank from exceeding 99°C under all operating conditions.
    (7)  No shut-off valve shall be installed on the pipe between any tank and the relief valves or on the discharge lines from such relief valves.
7.6.1.13.  Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentence (2), a system for solar heating of potable water shall be installed in accordance with good engineering practice.
    (2)  Packaged systems for solar heating of potable water in residential occupancies shall be installed in conformance with CAN/CSA-F383, “Installation Code for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems”.
7.6.1.14.  Water Hammer
    (1)  Provision shall be made to protect the water distribution system from the adverse effects of water hammer.
7.6.1.15.  Mobile Home Water Service
    (1)  A water service pipe intended to serve a mobile home shall,
    (a)   be not less than ¾ in. size,
    (b)   be terminated above ground, and
     (c)   be provided with,
               (i)   a tamperproof terminal connection that is capable of being repeatedly connected, disconnected and sealed,
              (ii)   a protective concrete pad,
             (iii)   a means to protect it from frost heave, and
             (iv)   a curb stop and a means of draining that part of the pipe located above the frost line when not in use.
7.6.1.16.  Thermal Expansion
    (1)  Protection against thermal expansion shall be required when a check valve is required by Article 7.6.1.10., a backflow preventer is required by Article 7.6.2.2., or a pressure reducing valve is required by Article 7.6.3.3.
7.6.2.  Protection from Contamination
7.6.2.1.  Connection of Systems
    (1)  Connections to potable water systems shall be designed and installed so that non-potable water or substances that may render the water non-potable cannot enter the system.
    (2)  No connection shall be made between a potable water system supplied with water from a drinking water system and any other potable water system without the consent of the water purveyor.
7.6.2.2.  Back-Siphonage
    (1)  Every potable water system that supplies a fixture or tank that is not subject to pressures above atmospheric shall be protected against back-siphonage by a backflow preventer.
    (2)  Where a potable water supply is connected to a boiler, tank, cooling jacket, lawn sprinkler system or other device where a non-potable fluid may be under pressure that is above atmospheric or the water outlet may be submerged in the non-potable fluid, the water supply shall be protected against backflow by a backflow preventer.
    (3)  Where a hose bibb is installed outside a building, inside a garage, or where there is an identifiable risk of contamination, the potable water system shall be protected against backflow by a backflow preventer.
7.6.2.3.  Reserved
7.6.2.4.  Backflow from Fire Protection Systems
    (1)  A backflow preventer shall not be required in a residential full flow through fire sprinkler system, in which the pipe and fittings are constructed of potable water system materials.
    (2)  Except as required in Sentence (4), potable water system connections to fire sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected against backflow caused by back-siphonage or back pressure in conformance with the following Clauses:
    (a)   Residential partial flow through fire sprinkler systems in which the pipes and fittings are constructed of potable water system materials shall be protected by a dual check valve backflow preventer conforming to CAN/CSA-B64.6.1, “Backflow Preventers, Dual Check Valve Type for Fire Systems (DuCF)”,
    (b)   Class 1 fire sprinkler/standpipe systems shall be protected by a single check valve backflow preventer conforming to CAN/CSA-B64.9, “Backflow Preventers, Single Check Valve Type for Fire Systems (SCVAF)”, provided that the systems do not use antifreeze or other additives of any kind and all pipes and fittings are constructed of potable water system materials,
     (c)   Class 1 fire sprinkler/standpipe systems not covered by Clause (b) as well as Class 2 and Class 3 fire sprinkler/standpipe systems shall be protected by a double check valve backflow preventer conforming to CAN/CSA-B64.5.1, “Backflow Preventers, Double Check Valve Type for Fire Systems (DCVAF)”, provided that the systems do not use antifreeze or other additives of any kind,
    (d)   Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3 fire sprinkler/standpipe systems, in which antifreeze or other additives are used shall be protected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer conforming to CAN/CSA-B64.4.1, “Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Type for Fire Systems (RPF)”, installed on the portion of the system that uses the additives and the balance of the system shall be protected as required by Clause (b) or (c),
     (e)   Class 4 and 5 fire sprinkler/standpipe systems shall be protected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer conforming to CAN/CSA-B64.4.1, “Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Type for Fire Systems (RPF)”,
     (f)   Class 6 fire sprinkler/standpipe systems shall be protected,
               (i)   by a double check valve backflow preventer conforming to CAN/CSA-B64.5.1, “Backflow Preventers, Double Check Valve Type for Fire Systems (DCVAF)”, or
              (ii)   where a potentially severe health hazard may be caused by backflow, by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer conforming to CAN/CSA- B64.4.1, “Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Type for Fire Systems (RPF)”, and
     (g)   backflow prevention devices on fire sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be selected and installed in conformance with Table 7.6.2.4.
Table 7.6.2.4.
Backflow Prevention Devices on Fire Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems
Forming Part of Sentences 7.6.2.4.(2)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Column 6

CSA Standard Number

Type of Device(1)

System Made with Potable Water System Materials

System Not Made with Potable Water System Materials

 

 

Minor Hazard(2) Residential Partial Flow-Through System

Minor Hazard(2) Class 1 System

Moderate Hazard(2) Class 1, 2, 3 and 6 Systems

Severe Hazard(2) – Any Class of System in which Antifreeze or Other Additives Are Used

B64.6.1

DuCF

P

NP

NP

NP

B64.9

SCVAF

P

P

NP

NP

B64.5.1

DCVAF

P

P

P

NP

B64.4.1

RPF

P

P

P

P

Notes to Table 7.6.2.4.:
P – Permitted
NP – Not Permitted
(1) The product is only permitted for use on fire sprinkler and standpipe systems.
(2) Minor Hazard, Moderate Hazard and Severe Hazard have the same meaning as indicated in CAN/CSA-B64.10 “Manual for the Selection and Installation of Backflow Prevention Devices”.
    (3)  The backflow preventer required by Sentence (2) shall be installed upstream of the fire department pumper connection.
    (4)  Where a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer is required on the water service pipe at a service connection located on the same premises as the fire service main in Class 3, 4, 5 and 6 fire sprinkler/standpipe systems, a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer conforming to CAN/CSA-B64.4.1, “Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Type for Fire Systems (RPF)”, shall also be provided on the fire service connection.
    (5)  Except as permitted in Sentences (1) and (8), backflow preventers shall be selected, installed and tested in conformance with CAN/CSA-B64.10 “Manual for the Selection and Installation of Backflow Prevention Devices”.
    (6)  Backflow prevention devices shall be provided in conformance with Sentence 7.2.10.10.(1).
    (7)  Tank type water closet valves shall be provided with a back-siphonage preventer in conformance with Sentence 7.2.10.10.(2).
    (8)  Buildings of residential occupancy within the scope of Part 9 are not required to be isolated unless they have access to an auxiliary water supply.
    (9)  In addition to the backflow preventer required by this Subsection, for buildings or facilities where a potentially severe health hazard may be caused by backflow, the potable water system shall be provided with premise isolation by the installation of a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.
7.6.2.5.  Reserved
7.6.2.6.  Reserved
7.6.2.7.  Reserved

7.6.2.8.  Cleaning of Systems
    (1)  A newly installed part of a potable water system shall be cleaned and then flushed with potable water before the system is put into operation.
7.6.2.9.  Air Gap
    (1)  An air gap shall not be located in a noxious environment.
    (2)  Every air gap shall be not less than 25 mm high and at least twice the diameter of the opening of the water supply outlet in height.
7.6.2.10.  Vacuum Breakers and Flood Levels
    (1)  Where the critical level is not marked on an atmospheric vacuum breaker or pressure vacuum breaker, the critical level shall be taken as the lowest point on the device.
    (2)  Where an atmospheric vacuum breaker is installed, it shall be located on the downstream side of the fixture control valve or faucet so that it will be subject to water supply pressure,
    (a)   only when the fixture control valve or faucet is open, and
    (b)   for periods of use not to exceed 12 h continuous.
    (3)  An atmospheric vacuum breaker shall be installed so that the critical level is at least the distance specified by the manufacturer at which the device will operate safely but not less than 25 mm above,
    (a)   the flood level rim of a fixture or tank, or
    (b)   the highest point open to atmosphere in an irrigation system.
    (4)  A pressure vacuum breaker shall be installed with its critical level at least 300 mm above,
    (a)   the flood level rim of a fixture or tank, or
    (b)   the highest point open to atmosphere in an irrigation system.
7.6.3.  Size and Capacity of Pipes
7.6.3.1.  Design
    (1)  Except as permitted in Sentences (2) and (3), the size of every pipe in a water distribution system that supplies water to a fixture or device and the flow pressures at the supply openings shall be designed to provide peak demand flow in conformance to Table 7.6.3.1.
    (2)  A tail piece or connector not more than 750 mm long and not less than ¼ in. inside diameter may be used to supply water to a fixture or device.
    (3)  A water distribution system that serves not more than a single dwelling unit does not need to conform to Column 3 of Table 7.6.3.1.
    (4)  No water system between the point of connection with the water service pipe or the water meter and the first branch that supplies a water heater, shall be less than ¾ in. size.
    (5)  Every pipe that supplies a fixture shall have a capacity that will produce a flow in the fixture that will flush the fixture and keep it in a sanitary condition.
Table 7.6.3.1.
Pipe Sizing for Water Supply to Fixture/Device
Forming Part of Sentences 7.6.3.1.(1) and (3)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Fixture or Device

Minimum Size of Supply Pipe, in.

Minimum Flow Pressure(1) kPa (gauge)

Hydraulic Load, fixture units

 

 

 

Private Use

Public Use

Bathroom group

 

 

 

 

(a)   with flush tank

NA

NA

6

-

(b)   with direct flush valve

NA

NA

8

-

Bath tub (with or without shower)

½

50

2

4

Clothes washer

½

100

3

-

Cup Sink

½

50

-

4

Dishwasher, domestic

½

100

3

-

Drinking fountain

3/8

100

-

1

Hose bib or wall hydrant

½

100

(2)

(2)

Laundry tray: 1, 2 or 3 compartments

½

100

2

4

Lavatory

3/8

50

1

2

Shower, single head

½

50

2

4

Sink

 

 

 

 

(a)   kitchen, domestic

½

50

2

-

(b)   kitchen, commercial

½

50

-

4

(c)   service, slop

½

50

-

3

(d)   service with direct flush valve

¾

100

-

5

Urinal

 

 

 

 

(a)   with flush tank

½

50

-

3

(b)   with direct flush valve

¾

100

-

5

(c)   with self closing metering valve

½

-

-

-

Water closet

 

 

 

 

(a)   with flush tank

3/8

50

3

5

(b)   with direct flush valve

1

100

6

10

Notes to Table 7.6.3.1.:
(1) Measured immediately upstream of faucet or supply valve.
(2) A continuous load of 0.38 L/s.
7.6.3.2.  Hydraulic Load
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentence (3), the hydraulic load of a fixture or device that is listed in Table 7.6.3.1. shall be the number of fixture units given in the Table.
    (2)  Except as provided in Sentences (1) and (3), the hydraulic load of a fixture that is not listed in Table 7.6.3.1. is the number of fixture units listed in Table 7.6.3.2.
    (3)  Where fixtures are supplied with both hot and cold water, the hydraulic loads for maximum separate demands shall be 75% of the hydraulic load of the fixture units given in Tables 7.6.3.1. and 7.6.3.2. when using a detailed engineering design method.
Table 7.6.3.2.
Hydraulic Loads of Fixtures Not Listed in Table 7.6.3.1.
Forming Part of Sentences 7.6.3.2.(2) and (3)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Size of Supply Pipe, in.

Hydraulic Load, fixture units

 

Private Use

Public Use

3/8

1

2

½

2

4

¾

3

6

1

6

10

7.6.3.3.  Static Pressure
    (1)  Where the static pressure at any fixture may exceed 550 kPa, a pressure reducing valve conforming to Article 7.2.10.12. shall be installed to limit the maximum static pressure at the fixture to 550 kPa.
7.6.3.4.  Size
    (1)  Every water service pipe shall be sized according to the peak demand flow but shall not be less than ¾ in. size.
7.6.4.  Water Efficiency
7.6.4.1.  Water Supply Fittings
    (1)  The flow rates of fittings that supply water to a fixture shall not exceed the maximum flow rates at the test pressures listed for that fitting in Table 7.6.4.1.
Table 7.6.4.1.
Maximum Flow Rates for Water Supply Fittings
Forming Part of Sentence 7.6.4.1.(1)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Fitting

Maximum Flow, L/min

Test Pressure, kPa

Lavatory Faucet

8.35

413

Kitchen Faucet

8.35

413

Shower Heads

9.5

550

    (2)  Sentence (1) does not apply to a fixture located in a heritage building.
7.6.4.2.  Plumbing Fixtures
    (1)  Water closets and urinals shall be certified to CAN/CSA-B45.0, “General Requirements for Plumbing Fixtures”.
    (2)  The flush cycle for each fixture that is a water closet or urinal and that is installed as a replacement for a fixture in a building that existed before the 1st day of January 1996 shall not exceed the maximum flush cycle listed for that fixture in Table 7.6.4.2.A.
Table 7.6.4.2.A.
Maximum Flush Cycles for Sanitary Fixtures
Forming Part of Sentences 7.6.4.2.(2)

Column 1

Column 2

Fixture

litres

Water Closet (Tank Type)

13.25

Water Closet (Direct Flush)

13.25

Urinal (Tank Type)

5.68(1)

Urinal (Direct Flush)

5.68(1)

Notes to Table 7.6.4.2.A.:
(1) Urinals equipped with automatic flushing devices shall be controlled to prevent unnecessary flush cycles during building down time.
    (3)  Except as provided in Sentence (2) the flush cycle for each fixture that is a water closet or urinal shall not exceed the maximum flush cycle listed for that fixture in Table 7.6.4.2.B.
Table 7.6.4.2.B.
Maximum Flush Cycles for Sanitary Fixtures
Forming Part of Sentence 7.6.4.2.(3)

Column 1

Column 2

Fixture

litres

Water Closet (Tank Type)

6

Water Closet (Direct Flush)

6

Urinal (Tank Type)

3.8(1)

Urinal (Direct Flush)

3.8(1)

Notes to Table 7.6.4.2.B.:
(1) Urinals equipped with automatic flushing devices shall be controlled to prevent unnecessary flush cycles during building down time.
    (4)  Sentences (2) and (3) do not apply to a fixture located in a heritage building, care or detention occupancy or passenger station.
7.6.5.  Water Temperature Control
7.6.5.1.  Maximum Temperature of Hot Water
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentences (2) and 7.6.5.3.(1), the maximum temperature of hot water supplied by fittings to fixtures in a residential occupancy shall not exceed 49°C.
    (2)  Sentence (1) does not apply to hot water supplied to installed dishwashers or clothes washers.
7.6.5.2.  Showers
    (1)  Except as provided for in Sentences (2) and (3), all valves supplying fixed location shower heads, shall be individually pressure-balanced or thermostatic-mixing valves, conforming to CAN/CSA-B125, “Plumbing Fittings”.
    (2)  An individually pressure-balanced or thermostatic-mixing valve shall not be required for showers if a single temperature water supply for such showers is controlled by a master thermostatic-mixing valve conforming to CAN/CSA-B125, “Plumbing Fittings”.
    (3)  Deck-mounted, hand-held, flexible-hose spray attachments are exempt from the thermal shock requirements of Sentence (1).
    (4)  Pressure-balanced or thermostatic-mixing valves shall be,
    (a)   designed so that the outlet temperature does not exceed 49°C, or
    (b)   equipped with high-limit stops which shall be adjusted to a maximum hot water setting of 49°C.
7.6.5.3.  Temperature Control Devices
    (1)  A water distribution system supplying hot water to any bathtub, shower or hand basin that is accessible to a patient or resident in a Group B, Division 2 or 3 occupancy or a resident of a group home, home for special care or residence for developmentally-handicapped adults shall have one or more temperature gauges and control devices that are,
    (a)   accessible only to supervisory staff, and
    (b)   capable of being adjusted to ensure that the temperature of the water supplied to the fixtures does not exceed 49°C.


Section 7.7.  Non-Potable Water Systems


7.7.1.  Connection
7.7.1.1.  Non-Potable Connection
    (1)  A non-potable water system shall not be connected to a potable water system.
7.7.2.  Identification
7.7.2.1.  Markings Required
    (1)  Non-potable water piping shall be identified by markings that are permanent, distinct and easily recognized.
7.7.3.  Location
7.7.3.1.  Pipes
    (1)  Non-potable water piping shall not be located,
    (a)   where food is prepared in a food processing plant,
    (b)   above food-handling equipment,
     (c)   above a non-pressurized potable water tank, or
    (d)   above a cover of a pressurized potable water tank.
7.7.3.2.  Outlets
    (1)  An outlet from a non-potable water system shall not be located where it can discharge into,
    (a)   a sink or lavatory,
    (b)   a fixture into which an outlet from a potable water system is discharged, or
     (c)   a fixture that is used for a purpose related to the preparation, handling or dispensing of food, drink or products that are intended for human consumption.




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