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Section 7.4.  Drainage Systems

Sec 7-7.2 materials, 7.3-piping-testing, 7.4-drainage-cleanouts, 7.5-venting-sizing, 7.6-7.7-potable water

7.4.1.  Application
7.4.1.1.  Application of Drainage Systems
    (1)  This Section applies to sanitary drainage systems and storm drainage systems.
7.4.2.  Connections to Drainage Systems
7.4.2.1.  Connections to Sanitary Drainage Systems
    (1)  Every fixture shall be directly connected to a sanitary drainage system, except that,
    (a)   drinking fountains may be,
               (i)   indirectly connected to a sanitary drainage system, or
              (ii)   connected to a storm drainage system provided that where the system is subject to backflow, a check valve is installed in the fountain waste pipe,
    (b)   laundry plumbing appliances may be indirectly connected to a sanitary drainage system,
     (c)   fixtures or plumbing appliances, other than floor drains, except as provided in Sentence 7.1.4.2.(2), that discharge only clear water waste may be connected to a storm drainage system,
    (d)   the following devices shall be indirectly connected to a drainage system:
               (i)   a device for the display, storage, preparation or processing of food or drink,
              (ii)   a sterilizer,
             (iii)   a device that uses water as a cooling or heating medium,
             (iv)   a water operated device,
              (v)   a water treatment device,
             (vi)   a drain or overflow from a water system or a heating system, or
            (vii)   a drain line from a HVAC system or equipment,
     (e)   fixtures that have a hydraulic load totaling not more than 1 ½ fixture units may be connected to a vertical section of a circuit vent provided,
               (i)   the fixtures are located in the same storey as the fixtures served by the vent pipes,
              (ii)   not more than 2 fixtures are connected to the vent pipe, and
             (iii)   where 2 fixtures are connected to the vent pipe, the connection is done with a double fitting in conformance with Table 7.2.4.5.,
     (f)   fixtures that have a hydraulic load totaling not more than 1 ½ fixture units may be connected to the vertical section of a yoke vent provided,
               (i)   not more than 2 fixtures are connected to the vent pipe, and
              (ii)   where 2 fixtures are connected to the vent pipe, the connection is done with a double fitting in conformance with Table 7.2.4.5.,
     (g)   fixtures may be connected to a vent stack provided,
               (i)   the total hydraulic load of the connected fixtures does not exceed 8 fixture units,
              (ii)   at least 1 fixture is connected to a vertical portion of the vent stack and upstream of any other fixtures,
             (iii)   no other fixture is connected downstream of a water closet, and
             (iv)   all fixtures are located in the lowest storey served by the vent stack, and
    (h)   floor drains within walk-in coolers shall be connected to a sanitary drainage system,
               (i)   indirectly with an air break, or
              (ii)   directly with a backwater valve installed on the drainage system before connection to the sanitary building drain.
    (2)  The connection of a soil or waste pipe to a nominally horizontal soil or waste pipe or to a nominally horizontal offset in a soil or waste stack shall be respectively at least 1 500 mm measured horizontally from the bottom of a soil or waste stack or from the bottom of the upper vertical section of the soil or waste stack that,
    (a)   receives a discharge of 30 or more fixture units, or
    (b)   receives a discharge from fixtures located on 2 or more storeys.
    (3)  No other fixture shall be connected to a lead bend or stub that serves a water closet.
    (4)  A soil or waste pipe that serves more than one clothes washer, and in which pressure zones are created by detergent suds, shall not serve for connecting other soil or waste pipes.
7.4.2.2.  Connection of Overflows from Rainwater Tanks
    (1)  An overflow from a rainwater tank shall not be directly connected to a storm drainage system.
7.4.2.3.  Direct Connections
    (1)  Two or more fixture outlet pipes that serve outlets from a single fixture that is listed in Clause 7.4.2.1.(1)(d) may be directly connected to a branch that,
    (a)   has a size of at least 1 ¼ in., and
    (b)   is terminated above the flood level rim of a directly connected fixture with a minimum diameter waste of 1 ½ in. to form an air break.
    (2)  Fixture drains from fixtures that are listed in Subclauses 7.4.2.1.(1)(d)(i) and (ii) may be directly connected to a pipe that,
    (a)   is terminated to form an air break above the flood level rim of a fixture that is directly connected to a sanitary drainage system, and
    (b)   is extended through the roof when fixtures that are on 3 or more storeys are connected to it.
    (3)  Fixture drains from fixtures that are listed in Subclauses 7.4.2.1.(1)(d)(iii) to (vi) may be directly connected to a pipe that,
    (a)   is terminated to form an air break above the flood level rim of a fixture that is directly connected to a storm drainage system, and
    (b)   is extended through the roof when fixtures that are on 3 or more storeys are connected to it.
    (4)  Every waste pipe carrying waste from a device for the display, storage, preparation or processing of food or drink, shall be trapped and have a minimum diameter equal to the diameter of the drain outlet from the device.
7.4.3.  Location of Fixtures
7.4.3.1.  Plumbing Fixtures
    (1)  Sanitary units, bathtubs and shower baths shall not be installed adjacent to wall and floor surfaces that are pervious to water.
7.4.3.2.  Restricted Locations of Indirect Connections and Traps
    (1)  Indirect connections or any trap that may overflow shall not be located in a crawl space or any other unfrequented area.
7.4.3.3.  Equipment Restrictions Upstream of Interceptors
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentence (2), equipment discharging waste with organic solids shall not be located upstream of an interceptor.
    (2)  If a food scrap interceptor has been installed upstream of the grease interceptor, equipment discharging waste with organic solids may discharge through a grease interceptor.
7.4.3.4.  Fixtures Located in Chemical Storage Locations
    (1)  A floor drain or other fixture located in an oil transformer vault, a high voltage room or any room where flammable, dangerous or toxic chemicals are stored or handled shall not be connected to a drainage system.
7.4.3.5.  Macerating Toilet System
    (1)  A maceration toilet system shall only be installed,
    (a)   where no connection to a gravity sanitary drainage system is available, and
    (b)   in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
7.4.3.6.  Drains Serving Elevator Pits
    (1)  If a floor drain is provided in an elevator pit, it shall be installed in accordance with Section 2.7. of the CSA B44, “Safety Code for Elevators”.
7.4.4.  Treatment of Sewage and Wastes
7.4.4.1.  Sewage Treatment
    (1)  Where a fixture or equipment discharges sewage or waste that may damage or impair the sanitary drainage system or the functioning of a sanitary sewage works or sanitary sewage system, provision shall be made for treatment of the sewage or waste before it is discharged to the sanitary drainage system.
7.4.4.2.  Protection for Drainage System
    (1)  Where a fixture discharges sewage or clear water waste that has been heated, the drainage system shall be suitable for the temperature of the sewage or clear water waste being discharged.
7.4.4.3.  Interceptors
    (1)  Except for suites of residential occupancy, where a fixture discharges sewage that includes fats, oils or grease and is located in an area that food is cooked, processed or prepared, it shall discharge through a grease interceptor.
    (2)  Except as provided in Sentence (3), oil interceptors shall be provided as follows:
    (a)   service stations, repair shops and garages or any establishment where motor vehicles are repaired, lubricated or maintained shall be provided with an oil interceptor, and
    (b)   establishments which use oily or flammable liquids or have such wastes as a result of an industrial process shall be provided with an engineered oil interceptor.
    (3)  Oil interceptors are not required for a drain in a hydraulic elevator pit, parking lot, car wash or a garage used exclusively as a motor vehicle parking area.
    (4)  Where a fixture discharges sand, grit or similar materials, an interceptor designed for the purpose of intercepting such discharges shall be installed.
    (5)  Every interceptor shall have sufficient capacity to perform the service for which it is provided.
    (6)  An on site constructed interceptor shall be constructed to the requirements of a manufactured interceptor.
    (7)  A grease interceptor shall be located as close as possible to the fixture or fixtures it serves.
    (8)  The flow rate through a grease interceptor shall not exceed its rated capacity and the flow rate shall be determined using the following:
                plumbing code
where:
      Q   is the flow rate to a grease interceptor in L/s.
      V   is the volume of the fixture in L.
DDT   is the drain down time, 60 or 120 seconds
    PD   is any pump discharge in L/s.
      N   is the number of fixtures to go through the interceptor.
    (9)  All grease and oil interceptors shall have an internal flow control and where the head will exceed five feet, a secondary flow control shall be required.
    (10)  Floor drains that conform to Sentence 7.4.5.1.(3) are not required to be separately trapped and vented, and may be gang trapped when discharging through an oil interceptor.
7.4.4.4.  Neutralizing and Dilution Tanks
    (1)  Where a fixture or equipment discharges corrosive or acid waste, it shall discharge into a neutralizing or diluting tank that is connected to the sanitary drainage system through,
    (a)   a trap, or
    (b)   indirect connection.
    (2)  Each neutralizing or diluting tank shall have a method for neutralizing the liquid.
7.4.5.  Traps
7.4.5.1.  Traps for Sanitary Drainage Systems
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentences (2) and (3) and Article 7.4.5.2., every fixture shall be protected by a separate trap.
    (2)  One trap may protect,
    (a)   all the trays or compartments of a two or three compartment sink,
    (b)   a two or three compartment laundry tray, or
     (c)   two similar type single compartment fixtures located in the same room.
    (3)  One trap may serve a group of floor drains and hub drains, a group of shower drains, a group of washing machines or a group of laboratory sinks if the fixtures,
    (a)   are in the same room, and
    (b)   are not located where they can receive food or other organic matter.
    (4)  Reserved
    (5)  A grease interceptor shall not serve as a fixture trap and each fixture discharging through the interceptor shall be trapped and vented.
    (6)  Where a domestic dishwashing machine equipped with a drainage pump discharges through a direct connection into the fixture outlet pipe of an adjacent kitchen sink or disposal unit, the pump discharge line shall,
    (a)   rise as high as possible to just under the counter, and
    (b)   connect,
               (i)   on the inlet side of the sink trap by means of a Y fitting, or
              (ii)   to the disposal unit.
7.4.5.2.  Traps for Storm Drainage Systems
    (1)  Where a storm drainage system is connected to a public combined sewer, a trap shall be installed between any opening in the system and the drain or sewer, except that no trap is required if the opening is the upper end of a leader that terminates,
    (a)   at a roof that is used only for weather protection, and
    (b)   not less than 1 000 mm above or not less than 3.5 m in any other direction from any air inlet, openable window or door, and
     (c)   not less than 1 800 mm from a property line.
7.4.5.3.  Connection of Subsoil Drainage Pipe to a Sanitary Drainage System
    (1)  Except as permitted in Sentence (2), no foundation drain or subsoil drainage pipe shall connect to a sanitary drainage system.
    (2)  Where a storm drainage system is not available or soil conditions prevent drainage to a culvert or dry well, a foundation drain or subsoil drainage pipe may connect to a sanitary drainage system.
    (3)  Where a subsoil drainage pipe may be connected to a sanitary drainage system, the connection shall be made on the upstream side of a trap with a cleanout or a trapped sump.
7.4.5.4.  Location and Cleanout for Building Traps
    (1)  Where a building trap is installed it shall,
    (a)   be provided with a cleanout fitting on the upstream side of and directly over the trap,
    (b)   be located upstream of the building cleanout, and
     (c)   be located,
               (i)   inside the building as close as practical to the place where the building drain leaves the building, or
              (ii)   outside the building in a manhole.
7.4.5.5.  Trap Seals
    (1)  Provision shall be made for maintaining the trap seal of a floor drain or a hub drain by the use of a trap seal primer, by using the drain as a receptacle for an indirectly connected drinking fountain, or by equally effective means.
    (2)  Where a mechanical device is installed to furnish water to a trap, the pipe or tube conveying water from the device to the trap shall be at least 3/8 in. inside diameter.
7.4.6.  Arrangement of Drainage Piping
7.4.6.1.  Separate Systems
    (1)  No vertical soil or waste pipe shall conduct both sanitary sewage and storm sewage.
    (2)  There shall be no unused open ends in a drainage system and dead ends shall be so graded that water will not collect in them.
7.4.6.2.  Location of Soil or Waste Pipes
    (1)  A soil or waste pipe shall not be located directly above,
    (a)   non-pressure potable water storage tanks,
    (b)   manholes in pressure potable water storage tanks, or
     (c)   food-handling or processing equipment.
7.4.6.3.  Sumps or Tanks
    (1)  Only piping that is too low to drain into a building sewer by gravity shall be drained to a sump or receiving tank.
    (2)  Where the sump or tank receives sanitary sewage it shall be water and air-tight and shall be vented.
    (3)  Equipment such as a pump or ejector that can lift the contents of the sump or tank and discharge it into the sanitary building drain or sanitary building sewer shall be installed.
    (4)  Where the equipment does not operate automatically the capacity of the sump shall be sufficient to hold at least a 24 hours accumulation of liquid.
    (5)  Where there is a building trap the discharge pipe from the equipment shall be connected to the sanitary building drain downstream of the trap.
    (6)  The discharge pipe from every pumped sanitary sewage sump shall be equipped with a union, a check valve and a shut-off valve installed in that sequence in the direction of discharge.
    (7)  The discharge piping from a pump or ejector shall be sized for optimum flow velocities at pump design conditions.
    (8)  The discharge pipe from every pumped storm sewage sump shall be equipped with,
    (a)   a union and a check valve installed in that sequence in the direction of discharge and pumped to above grade level, or
    (b)   a union, a check valve and a shut off valve installed in that sequence in the direction of discharge.
7.4.6.4.  Protection from Backflow
    (1)  Except as permitted in Sentence (2), a backwater valve that would prevent free circulation of air shall not be installed in a building drain or in a building sewer.
    (2)  A backwater valve may be installed in a building drain provided that,
    (a)   it is a “normally open” design conforming to,
               (i)   CAN/CSA-B70, “Cast Iron Soil Pipe, Fittings, and Means of Joining”,
              (ii)   CAN/CSA-B181.1, “ABS Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings”,
             (iii)   CAN/CSA-B 181.2, “PVC Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings”, or
             (iv)   CAN/CSA-B182.1, “Plastic Drain and Sewer Pipe and Pipe Fittings”, and
    (b)   it does not serve more than one dwelling unit.
    (3)  Except as provided in Sentences (4) and (5), where a building drain or a branch may be subject to backflow, a backwater valve shall be installed on every fixture drain connected to them when the fixture is located below the level of the adjoining street.
    (4)  Where more than one fixture is located on a storey and all are connected to the same branch, the backwater valve may be installed on the branch.
    (5)  A subsoil drainage pipe that drains into a sanitary drainage system that is subject to surcharge shall be connected in such a manner that sewage cannot back up into the subsoil drainage pipe.
7.4.6.5.  Mobile Home Sewer Service
    (1)  A building sewer intended to serve a mobile home shall,
    (a)   be not less than 4 in. in size,
    (b)   be terminated above ground,
     (c)   be provided with,
               (i)   a tamperproof terminal connection that is capable of being repeatedly connected, disconnected and sealed,
              (ii)   a protective concrete pad, and
             (iii)   a means to protect it from frost heave, and
    (d)   be designed and constructed in accordance with good engineering practice.
7.4.6.6.  Building Drain Ends
    (1)  Where a building drain enters a building above the elevation of the bottom of the wall of a building, the building drain may be deemed to terminate at the first point that the drainage pipe changes direction from the horizontal to the vertical.
7.4.7.  Cleanouts
7.4.7.1.  Cleanouts for Drainage Systems
    (1)  Every sanitary drainage system and storm drainage system shall be provided with cleanouts that will permit cleaning of the entire system.
    (2)  A cleanout fitting shall be provided on the upstream side and directly over every running trap.
    (3)  Every interior leader shall be provided with a cleanout fitting at the bottom of the leader or not more than 1 000 mm upstream from the bottom of the leader.
    (4)  Where a cleanout is required on a building sewer 8 in. or larger in size, it shall be a manhole.
    (5)  Where there is a change of direction greater than 45° in a sanitary building drain or a sanitary building sewer, a cleanout shall be installed at each change in direction.
    (6)  Every sanitary building drain or storm building drain shall be provided with a cleanout fitting that is located as close as practical to the place where the drain leaves the building.
    (7)  Every soil or waste stack shall be provided with a cleanout fitting,
    (a)   at the bottom of the stack,
    (b)   not more than 1 000 mm upstream of the bottom of the stack, or
     (c)   on a Y fitting connecting the stack to the building drain or branch.
    (8)  A cleanout shall be provided to permit the cleaning of the piping immediately downstream of an interceptor.
    (9)  Every indirect drainage pipe carrying waste from a food receptacle shall have a cleanout access at every change of direction of more than 45°.
    (10)  A cleanout shall be installed on a fixture drain serving a kitchen sink.
7.4.7.2.  Size and Spacing of Cleanouts
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentences (2) and (3), on drainage piping of 4 in. size and smaller, the minimum size cleanout opening shall be the same size as the drainage pipe and on drainage piping larger than the 4 in. size, the cleanout opening shall be 4 in. or larger and the maximum spacing between cleanouts on horizontal pipe shall be,
    (a)   in the case of a sink waste pipe, 6 m,
    (b)   in the case of a horizontal sanitary drainage pipe, or storm drainage pipe, other than a waste pipe from a sink, 15 m, and
     (c)   in the case of a horizontal sanitary drainage pipe or storm drainage pipe larger than 4 in. size, 30 m.
    (2)  The spacing between manholes serving a building sewer,
    (a)   24 in. or less in size shall not exceed 90 m, and
    (b)   over 24 in. in size shall not exceed 150 m.
    (3)  The developed length of a building sewer between the building and the first manhole to which the building sewer connects shall not exceed 30 m.
    (4)  Cleanouts that allow rodding in one direction only shall be installed to permit rodding in the direction of flow.
    (5)  Manholes shall be located at all junctions, all changes in grade, size or alignment (except for curvilinear alignment) on a sanitary building sewer that is 8 in. or larger in size.
    (6)  Manholes shall be located at changes of grade, size or alignment (except for curvilinear alignment) on a storm building sewer or storm drainage piping that is 8 in. or larger in size.

7.4.7.3.  Manholes
    (1)  A manhole including the cover shall be designed to support all loads imposed upon it.
    (2)  A manhole shall be provided with,
    (a)   a cover which shall provide an airtight seal if located within a building,
    (b)   a rigid ladder of a corrosion-resistant material where the depth exceeds 1 000 mm, and
     (c)   a vent to the exterior if the manhole is located within a building.
    (3)  A manhole shall have a minimum horizontal dimension of 1 200 mm, except that the top 1 500 mm may be tapered from 1 200 mm down to a minimum of 600 mm at the top.
    (4)  A manhole in a sanitary drainage system shall be channelled to direct the flow of effluent.
7.4.7.4.  Location of Cleanouts
    (1)  Cleanouts and access covers shall be located so that the openings are readily accessible for drain cleaning purposes.
    (2)  A cleanout shall not be located in a floor assembly in a manner that may constitute a hazard and shall not be used as a floor drain.
    (3)  Reserved
    (4)  Each change of direction of the piping between a cleanout fitting and the drainage piping or vent piping that is serves shall be accomplished by using 45° bends.
    (5)  A cleanout shall be provided to serve vertical drainage piping from a wall hung urinal and shall extend above the flood level rim of the fixture.
    (6)  A cleanout serving a fixture in health care facilities, mortuaries, laboratories and similar occupancies, where contamination by body fluids is likely, shall be located a minimum of 150 mm above the flood level rim of the fixture.
7.4.8.  Minimum Slope and Length of Drainage Pipes
7.4.8.1.  Minimum Slope
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentences (2) and (3), every drainage pipe that has a size of 3 in. or less, and every fixture drain shall have a downward slope in the direction of flow of at least 1 in 50.
    (2)  Sentence (1) does not apply to a force main.
    (3)  Where it is not possible to comply with Sentence (1), a lesser slope may be used if it will produce a gravity flow of not less than 0.6 m per second.
7.4.8.2.  Length of Fixture Outlet Pipes
    (1)  Except for fixture outlet pipes installed in conformance with Sentence 7.4.5.1.(3), the developed length of every fixture outlet pipe shall not exceed 1 200 mm.
7.4.9.  Size of Drainage Pipes
7.4.9.1.  No Reduction in Size
    (1)  Except as permitted in Sentence (3), no drainage pipe that is of minimum size required by this Part for the purpose for which it is installed shall be so connected as to drain to other drainage pipe of lesser size.
    (2)  Where a building drain connects to a stack through a wall or floor, the drain shall retain its full size through the wall or floor.
    (3)  A sanitary drainage pipe may be connected to a pre-engineered waste water heat recovery system that incorporates piping of a lesser size than required by Sentence (1) provided that it does not convey sewage,
    (a)   from a sanitary unit, or
    (b)   that contains solids.
7.4.9.2.  Serving Water Closets
    (1)  The size of every drainage pipe that serves a water closet shall be at least 3 in.
    (2)  The size of every horizontal drainage pipe downstream of the third water closet fixture drain connection shall be at least 4 in.
    (3)  The size of every soil stack that serves more than 6 water closets shall be at least 4 in.
    (4)  The discharge pipe serving a macerating toilet shall be not less than 3/4 in. size with a hydraulic load of 4 fixture units.
7.4.9.3.  Size of Fixture Outlet Pipes
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentence (2) the size of every fixture outlet pipe shall conform to Table 7.4.9.3.
Table 7.4.9.3.
Minimum Permitted Size of Fixture Outlet Pipe and Hydraulic Loads for Fixtures
Forming Part of Sentences 7.4.9.3.(1) and 7.4.10.2.(1)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Fixture

Minimum Size of Fixture Outlet Pipe, in.

Hydraulic Load, fixture units

Autopsy table

1 ½

2

Bathroom group

 

 

(a)   with flush tank

 

6

(b)   with direct flush valve

 

8

Bathtub (with or without shower)

1 ½

1 ½

Bath: foot, sitz or slab

1 ½

1 ½

Bed pan washer

3

6

Beer cabinet

1 ½

1 ½

Bidet

1 ¼

1

Chinese range

1 ½

3

Clothes washer

 

 

(a)   domestic

N/A

1 ½ with 1 ½ in. trap

(b)   commercial

N/A

2 with 1 ½ in. trap

Cup Sinks

1 ¼

2

Dental unit or cuspidor

1 ¼

1

Dishwasher

 

 

(a)   domestic

1 ½

1 (no load if connected to garbage grinder or domestic sink)

(b)   commercial type

2

3

Drinking fountain

1 ¼

2

Fish tank or tray

1 ½

12

Floor drain

2

2 with 2 in. trap

 

 

3 with 3 in. trap

Garbage grinder, commercial type

2

3

Icebox

1 ¼

1

Laundry tray

 

 

(a)   single or double units or 2 single units with common trap

1 ½

1 ½

(b)   3 compartments

1 ½

2

Lavatory

 

 

(a)   barber or beauty parlor

1 ½

1 ½

(b)   dental

1 ¼

1

(c)   domestic type single, or 2 single with common trap

1 ¼

1 with 1 ¼ in. trap
1 ½ with 1 ½ in. trap

(d)   multiple or industrial type

1 ½

3

Macerating Toilet System for single bathroom

See Sentence 7.4.9.2.(4)

4

Potato Peeler

2

3

Shower drain

 

 

(a)   from 1 head

1 ½

1 ½

(b)   from 2 or 3 heads

2

3

(c)   from 4 to 6 heads

3

6

Sink

 

 

(a)   domestic and other small type with or without garbage grinders, single, double or 2 single with a common trap

1 ½

1 ½

(b)   other sinks

1 ½

1 ½ with 1 ½ in. trap

 

 

2 with 2 in. trap

 

 

3 with 3 in. trap

Urinal

 

 

(a)   pedestal, siphon jet or blowout type

2

4

(b)   stall, washout type

2

2

(c)   wall

 

 

       (i)   washout type

1 ½

1 ½

      (ii)   other types

2

3

Water closet

 

 

(a) with flush tank

3

4

(b) with direct flush

3

6

    (2)  The part of the fixture outlet pipe that is common to 3 compartments of a sink shall be one size larger than the largest fixture outlet pipe of the compartments that it serves.
    (3)  Where clothes washers do not drain to a laundry tray, the trap inlet shall be fitted with a vertical standpipe that is not less than 600 mm long measured from the trap weir and the top of the standpipe shall terminate above the flood level rim of the clothes washer it serves.
7.4.9.4. Minimum Size of Building Drains and Sewers
    (1)  Every sanitary building drain and every sanitary building sewer shall be at least 4 in. size.
    (2)  Every storm building drain and every storm building sewer shall be at least 4 in. size.
7.4.10.  Hydraulic Loads
7.4.10.1.  Total Load on a Pipe
    (1)  The hydraulic load on a pipe is the total load from,
    (a)   every fixture that is connected to the system upstream of the pipe,
    (b)   every fixture for which provision is made for future connection upstream of the pipe, and
     (c)   all roofs and paved surfaces that drain into the system upstream of the pipe.
7.4.10.2.  Hydraulic Loads for Fixtures
    (1)  The hydraulic load from a fixture that is listed in Table 7.4.9.3. is the number of fixture units set forth in the Table.
    (2)  Except as provided in Sentence (1), the hydraulic load from a fixture that is not listed in Table 7.4.9.3. is the number of fixture units set forth in Table 7.4.10.2. for the trap of the size that serves the fixture.
Table 7.4.10.2.
Permitted Hydraulic Load from a Fixture Based on Size of Trap
Forming Part of Sentence 7.4.10.2.(2)

Column 1

Column 2

Size of Trap, in.

Hydraulic Load, fixture units

1 ¼

1

1 ½

2

2

3

2 ½

4

3

5

4

6

7.4.10.3.  Hydraulic Loads from Fixtures with Continuous or Semi-continuous Flow
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentence (2), the hydraulic load from a fixture that produces a continuous flow, such as a pump or an air-conditioning fixture, is 31.7 fixture units for each litre per second of flow.
    (2)  Where a fixture or equipment that produces a continuous or semi-continuous flow drains to a storm drainage system, the hydraulic load from the fixture is 900 litres for each litre per second of flow.
    (3)  The hydraulic load from a fixture or equipment that produces a semi-continuous flow shall conform to Table 7.4.10.3.


Table 7.4.10.3.
Maximum Permitted Hydraulic Load from Fixtures with Semi-continuous Flows
Forming Part of Sentence 7.4.10.3.(3)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Maximum Permitted Flows by Trap Size

Trap Size, in.

Flow, L/s

Hydraulic Load, fixture units

1 ½

0.00 - 0.090

3

2

0.091 - 0.190

6

3

0.191 - 0.850

27

4

0.851 - 5.700

180

7.4.10.4.  Hydraulic Loads from Roofs or Paved Surfaces
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentence (2), the hydraulic load in litres from a roof or paved surface is the maximum 15 min rainfall determined in conformance with Supplementary Standard SB-1, multiplied by the sum of,
    (a)   the area in square metres of the horizontal projection of the surface drained, and
    (b)   one-half the area in square metres of the largest adjoining vertical surface.
    (2)  Flow control roof drains may be installed provided,
    (a)   the maximum drain down time does not exceed 24 h,
    (b)   the roof structure has been designed to carry the load of the accumulated water,
     (c)   one or more scuppers are installed so that the maximum depth of water on the roof cannot exceed 150 mm,
    (d)   they are located not more than 15 m from the edge of the roof and not more than 30 m from adjacent drains, and
     (e)   there is at least one drain for each 900 m2.
7.4.10.5.  Conversion of Fixture Units to Litres and Gal/min
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentence 7.4.10.3.(2), where the hydraulic load is to be expressed in litres, fixture units shall be converted as follows:
    (a)   when the number of fixture units is 260 or fewer, the load is 2 360 L, and
    (b)   when the number of fixture units exceeds 260, the load is 9.1 L for each fixture unit.
    (2)  Where the hydraulic load is to be expressed in gal/min, fixture units shall be converted in accordance with Table 7.4.10.5.
Table 7.4.10.5.
Maximum Probable Drainage Rate, gal/min
Forming Part of Sentences 7.4.10.3.(1), 7.4.10.5.(2)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Fixture Units in Service

Fixture Units

Fixture Units

Fixture Units

 

Col. 1

Col. 1 × 10

Col. 1 × 100

100

53

174

900

90

51

164

835

80

49

153

750

70

47

140

680

60

44

128

600

50

41

115

520

40

38

102

435

30

33

88

350

20

27

72

262

10

21

53

174

7.4.10.6.  Hydraulic Loads to Soil or Waste Pipes
    (1)  Except as provided in Sentences (2) and (4), the hydraulic load that is drained to every soil or waste stack shall conform to Table 7.4.10.6.A.
Table 7.4.10.6.A.
Maximum Permitted Hydraulic Load Drained to Soil-or-Waste Stack
Forming Part of Sentence 7.4.10.6.(1)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Pipe Size, in.

Maximum Hydraulic Load, fixture units

Maximum Fixture Units Drained from any one Storey

1 ¼

2

2

1 ½

8

5

2

24

10

3

102

18

4

540

100

5

1 400

250

6

2 900

500

8

7 600

830

10

15 000

2 700

12

26 000

4 680

15

50 000

9 000

    (2)  Where the norminally horizontal offset in a soil or waste stack is 1 500 mm or more, the hydraulic load that is served by it shall conform to Table 7.4.10.8.
    (3)  Vertical sanitary drainage pipe shall be designed to carry no more than 29% of its full capacity.
    (4)  No vertical waste pipe, branch or stack of less than 3 in. diameter shall have a hydraulic load in excess of that permitted by Table 7.4.10.6.B.
Table 7.4.10.6.B.
Maximum Load on Vertical Drainage Pipe, Fixture Units
Forming Part of Sentence 7.4.10.6.(4)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Pipe Size, in.

Stack Height

Stack Height

For Each Storey in Stack of

 

3 Storeys or less

More than 3 Storeys

more than 3 Storeys

1 ¼

2

2

2

1 ½

8

8

5

2

16

24

10

7.4.10.7.  Hydraulic Loads on Branches
    (1)  No horizontal sanitary drainage pipe of less than 3 in. size shall have a fixture loading in excess of that permitted by Table 7.4.10.7.
Table 7.4.10.7.
Maximum Permitted Hydraulic Load Drained to a Branch
Forming Part of Sentence 7.4.10.7.(1)

Column 1

Column 2

Size of Branch, in.

Maximum Load, fixture units

1 ¼

2

1 ½

4

2

6

7.4.10.8.  Hydraulic Loads on Sanitary Horizontal Drain
    (1)  Except as permitted by Article 7.4.10.7., the hydraulic load that is drained to a horizontal sanitary drainage pipe shall conform to Table 7.4.10.8., based on the size and slope.
    (2)  Horizontal sanitary drainage pipe shall be designed to carry no more than 65% of its full capacity.
Table 7.4.10.8.
Maximum Permitted Hydraulic Load Drained to a Horizontal Sanitary Drainage Pipe
Forming Part of Sentences 7.4.10.3.(1), 7.4.10.6.(2) and 7.4.10.8.(1)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Column 6

Column 7

Drain Size, Nominal in.

Maximum Hydraulic Load, fixture units

 

Slope(1)

 

1:400

1:200

1:133

1:100

1:50

1:25

3

---

---

---

---

27

36

4

---

---

---

180

240

300

5

---

---

380

390

480

670

6

---

---

600

700

840

1300

8

---

1400

1500

1600

2250

3370

10

---

2500

2700

3000

4500

6500

12

2240

3900

4500

5400

8300

13000

15

4800

7000

9300

10400

16300

22500

Notes to Table 7.4.10.8.:
(1) Slope is the ratio of rise to run, in whatever measurement units are chosen.
7.4.10.9.  Hydraulic Loads on Horizontal Storm Drains
    (1)  The hydraulic load that is drained to a horizontal storm drainage pipe shall conform to Table 7.4.10.9., based on the size and slope.
Table 7.4.10.9.
Minimum Permitted Hydraulic Load Drained to a Horizontal Storm Drainage Pipe
Forming Part of Sentences 7.4.10.9.(1) and 7.4.10.10.(2)

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Column 6

Column 7

Column 8

Size of Drain or Sewer, in.

Maximum Hydraulic Load, L

Slope(1)

1 in 400

1 in 200

1 in 133

1 in 100

1 in 68

1 in 50

1 in 25

3

------

------

------

------

2 390

2 770

3 910

4

------

------

------

4 220

5 160

5 970

8 430

5

------

------

6 760

7 650

9 350

10 800

15 300

6

------

------

10 700

12 400

15 200

17 600

24 900

8

------

18 900

23 200

26 700

32 800

37 800

53 600

10

------

34 300

41 900

48 500

59 400

68 600

97 000

12

37 400

55 900

68 300

78 700

96 500

112 000

158 000

15

71 400

101 000

124 000

143 000

175 000

202 000

287 000

Notes to Table 7.4.10.9.:
(1) Slope is the ratio of rise to run, in whatever measurement units are chosen.
7.4.10.10.  Rain Leaders
    (1)  No change in the size of a rain leader with a nominally horizontal offset is required if the offset,
    (a)   is located immediately under the roof,
    (b)   is not more than 6 m long, and
     (c)   has a slope not less than 1 in 50.
    (2)  If the horizontal offset is more than 6 m long, the rain leader shall conform to Table 7.4.10.9.
    (3)  The hydraulic load that is drained to a rain leader shall conform to Table 7.4.10.10.
Table 7.4.10.10.
Maximum Permitted Hydraulic Load Drained to a Circular Rain Leader
Forming Part of Sentence 7.4.10.10.(3)

Column 1

Column 2

Size, in.

Maximum Hydraulic Load, L

2

1 700

2 ½

3 070

3

5 000

4

10 800

5

19 500

6

31 800

8

68 300


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